That must have been interesting. In American English have to is the normal form. Modal verbs are a special category of helping verbs that we use to express possibility, capability, intention, obligation, permission, and futurity. British English often makes a distinction between them. A strong recommendation. Both are depending on how they're used. You must see the new Peter Jackson movie, it's fantastic. The second is for the present moment. VS. The first is an appropriate response to someone who has just finished telling you a story about something in the past that exhausted them. Must Summary Chart Mustn't. The categories of legal person (which includes natural persons) which don’t have legal capacity are: bankrupts; minors (subject to the Minors' Contracts Act 1987) individuals operating under a mental disability (at common law) companies which have not yet been formed, and Mark Kappe is correct. Here are sample sentences: The mail must be lost in the mail. The mail must have been lost in the mail. Something that is highly recommended (stronger than using should) We really must get together for dinner sometime. "She must have left the house by now; it’s nearly 11 o'clock." 5. Must and have to can both be used to talk about necessity. Drivers must not make unsafe lane changes. You must try some. Obligation. Please provide me with some clarification on this. To form a contract, a party must have the legal capacity to do so. In American English, have to is more common. The ice cream here is delicious. Both must and have to can be used to talk about obligation. Are both of these grammatically correct and they both apply to something that is thought to be lost in the mail? Must - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary We use "must have", "can't have" and "might have" in the same way as the present perfect - the action we are describing happened, or did not happen, in the past and is still true in the present. "must have": we believe the action definitely happened. MUST – NECESSITY; Must expresses an opinion about what needs to be done in the present or future, and is based on one's personal sense of what is right and what is wrong. Necessity. We must/have to build up a strong army to defend the country. (present tense) Each of the drivers had to file an accident report. She must have been at home - her car was there. To expand on his answer a bit, “must” is one of English’s modal verbs. Hi, I'm completely confused as to how to use must and must have been. The passengers in the car must have been extremely frightened. 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